Microsoft Windows has came a long way since the dreadful days of common OS crashes and BSOD's, I have been using my current install of Microsoft Windows 7 since past 2.5 years and never faced any major annoyance. Suddenly, few days ago my computer failed to connect to any shared network folder and greeted me with the error "Windows cannot access \\machine\sharedfolder, error code 0x80004005" every-time I tried accessing a network resource as shown below. Strangely, the computer was discovering other computers on the network and I was able to ping and SSH into them like my Raspberry Pi Network Attached Storage (NAS). After, trying everything from messing with firewall settings, completely uninstalling Kaspersky Internet Security 2014, enabling all sorts of networking services and changing security policies nothing worked. After 5 days of reading numerous articles on the internet I finally managed to nail this and solve this problem as shared below.
This problem occurs when Windows core networking component Multiple Provider Router (Mpr.dll) is not able to load any network providers from the registry setting located at - HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\NetworkProvider\Order, the problem can be caused by misbehaving applications corrupting this particular registry entry. As you can see from the image posted below the 'Order' setting has two blank entries in the beginning causing the problem.
To solve this issue, all you need to do is to make this entry correct. Start by launching the Registry Editor (regedit.exe) and navigating to the following key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\NetworkProvider\Order, now edit and fix the ProviderOrder entry to correct value of RDPNP,LanmanWorkstation,webclient as shown below. (Note : It is always advisable to create a registry backup (or atleast the key backup) before changing anything.)
Reboot your computer and you should be able to browse the network resources as earlier.